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2D Resistivity Imaging for Identification of Successful Bore Well Locations in the Fractured Rock Aquifer System

SKU: C-95956
Considerable number of bore wells drilled in the hard rock terrain fail due to unscientific method adopted for pinpointing bore wells for drilling. Bore wells are generally located based on the geological considerations and surface features. Vertical Electrical Soundings are employed in few cases before the drilling of the bore wells. However, this type of geophysical survey does not consider lateral variation which is the inherent property of the sub surface formations. It gives variations in the vertical direction below the point selected. In order to overcome these limitations 2D Resistivity Imaging surveys multi electrodes are employed for the survey along with electronic switching system and multi core cables. Computerized system takes care of storing the data and the computer program facilitates processing the data for preparing the cross sections. Thus the section generated uses vast survey data facilitates, which help in selection of suitable location for drilling of bore well. This is further subjected to confirmation from the Vertical Resistivity Soundings (VES) taken at the selected point. This methodology is adopted in the selection and pin pointing of bore wells in the study area in Tumkur district, Karnataka. This has resulted in minimizing the failure of bore wells.

Advanced Geophysical Investigation including Heliborne TEM in High-Resolution Aquifer Mapping with Special Emphasis on Crystalline Hard Rocks

SKU: C-95954
Comprehensive knowledge of aquifer system in the hard rock areas is a prerequisite to develop an effective groundwater management strategy. A majority of the geological formations hosting the aquifers are highly variable and complex with scantily available information especially in the hard rock terrain. In such scenarios the worldwide experience has been to acquire continuous data on a regional scale using heliborne geophysical measurements, interpret and integrate them with available geological and ground geophysical information to obtain a reliable knowledge-base on aquifers. The main advantages of the Heliborne geophysical survey is that it is fast, highly data dense, precise and obviously economical. Moreover, it can be conducted in remote as well as inaccessible areas. For mapping the sub-surface, the Heliborne Transient Electromagnetic Method (HTEM) provides the best option as it can efficiently map the sub-surface conductivity variations associated with the groundwater. The HTEM method energizes the ground means of sending a current pulse in the transmitter loop towed below the helicopter. The pulse induces eddy currents in the subsurface geological conductors that in turn produce secondary EM fields, which are recorded by a receiver loop, placed either at the center or in close vicinity of the transmitter loop. The measured response is then analyzed, processed and modeled to create depth images representing subsurface resistivity/conductivity distributions. The resistivity models are calibrated and validated with ground based measurements such as ground geophysics, borehole data etc. and finally results in constructing the geological structures that control the occurrence of groundwater. This advanced technique has been applied in six pilot areas located in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu states representing diverse hydrogeological set up. However, this paper presents detailed results from a crystalline hard rock aquifer in Ankasandra watershed, Tumkur district, Karnataka, India.

Artificial Recharge in India as an Effective insitu Water Security Intervention: Studies in Two Select River Basins

SKU: C-95952
India is a vast country with varying agroclimate, physiography and hydrogeology. This diversity is responsible for variations in the rainfall and water resources across the country. Ever increasing demand for surface water and groundwater resources due to various developmental activities like agriculture, power and industry are depleting water resources at an alarming rate. This has prompted the country to re-examine and re-evaluate its strategies and adopt artificial recharge as a National Policy. But artificial recharge projects in India are undertaken in a piece meal fashion with isolated or cluster approach, mostly left to the discretion of the individual or the nongovernmental organisations. This paper emphasizes the need for a concerted effort to institutionalize the efforts towards a river-basin /watershed wise approach that encompasses the overall hydrogeological water budget and the ecosystem as a whole endemic to that basin. In this paper the two basins selected for study include the Krishna River Basin where surplus surface water from floods can be used for artificially recharging of thirsty hard-rock aquifers around Ahmednagar, Solapur and Kolar areas. The other priority area is in the Western Rajasthan Basin where canal waters from the Indira Gandhi Canal Network can be used to recharge over-exploited sedimentary aquifers in the Jaisalmer, Barmer and the Nagaur-Palana region. An integrated artificial recharge plan is required to arrest and reverse the groundwater depletion in these basins.

Conjunctive Use of Surface and Ground Water Resources: Selected Case Studies from Andhra Pradesh and Telangana in Peninsular India

SKU: C-95960
At present, a fragmented approach is adopted in water resource management with more focus on supply side from canal water in canal command areas. Planning for development and management of surface and groundwater resources are dealt separately. The studies taken up by in irrigation project areas in semiarid tract of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states by Central Ground Water Board indicate that there is excessive usage of canal water resources in the upstream areas resulting in water shortage areas in the middle reaches and tail end parts of the project areas. By harnessing groundwater resources, water shortage in middle and tailend areas can be mitigated bringing these areas under irrigation. The possible approaches for implementation of conjunctive use plans are discussed in the paper.

Crop Water Planning and Irrigation Efficiency in Rainfed Agriculture

SKU: C-95948
More than 70 % of irrigation needs in India are currently met from groundwater resources. Hard rock areas (HRA) in India occupy more than 65% of the geographical area where groundwater resource is in increasing demand, but fraught with poor recharge. Indian farmers pump twice the groundwater used in USA and six times that used in EU. India's green revolution was significantly supported by increased groundwater irrigation, and can be termed as 'groundwater revolution' leading to overexploitation in many regions. A fall out of overexploitation is farmers increasingly facing risk of initial and premature well failure which exacerbates the cost of groundwater. Water policies focus on the demand side of water (Million wells scheme, Subsidy for micro irrigation, conveyance pipes, energy subsidy) neglecting the supply side of water (or lack of efforts towards recharging well) affecting its sustainable use. Even considering the energy subsidy, farmers are bearing more than 50 to 75 % of cost of groundwater, treating groundwater expenditure as implicit rather than as explicit cost. The costing methodology of cultivation by DES (Directorate of Economics and Statistics)/CACP (Commission for agricultural costs and benefits) ignores the cost of groundwater by treating depreciation on all items of expenditure on irrigation well and irrigation pump (IP) set as fixed cost (for an unspecified number of years). Even the yield of the well and number of hours of operation of IP set for different crops are not properly accounted in the record type forms, where cost of cultivation is assessed on daily basis from thousands of sample farmers all over India. Thus, the DES/CACP is yet to take adequate steps in properly accounting for the cost of groundwater irrigation in the Cost Concepts (of Cost A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, C3). In fact DES/CACP computes average cost of cultivation clubbing both irrigated and rainfed crop conditions. This paper suggests how DES can modify its methodology in costing of groundwater irrigation, highlighting the extent of overestimation of profits due to underestimation of cost of irrigation. By appropriately accounting for the costs of groundwater irrigation incurred by farmers, this article offers solutions for facilitating in the appropriate costing methodology for Minimum Support Prices (MSP), Statutory Minimum Price and Market Intervention Scheme for crops for the benefit of farmers.

Ground Water Management, Sustainability and Equity

SKU: C-95942
Due to the ever-increasing demand for potable and irrigation water, the stress on groundwater is increasing day by day, one of the major factors being rising demand in the irrigation sector of India. This has created severe stress on the available water resource necessitating judicious distribution of the resource and greater water use efficiency. The overall stage of ground water development of our country has already touched 62% as per 2011 estimations. Out of 6607 assessment units (Blocks/ Mandals/talukas/Firkas), 1071 units in various states are overexploited. This statistics points to the urgent need for water management to render it sustainable (Robert W. Kates et al., 2003). It calls for scientific information and management principles considering the social, environmental, legal and economic concerns. The management of ground water as an integral part of the hydrological cycle needs wise beneficial and efficient use including fair allocation, equitable access and monitoring from human, environmental and ecological needs.

Integrated and Participatory Water Management: BIRD K Experience

SKU: C-95959
BAIF Institute for Rural Development-Karnataka (BIRD-K) is an associate organization of BAIF Development Research Foundation, Pune working for the up-liftment of rural poor where natural resources management, livestock development especially breed improvement, trainings and women empowerment are the thrust areas. Almost all the selected approaches are site specific, economically viable, replicable and socially accepted. All these projects have been implemented on participatory mode. The present paper highlights on the two such approaches being followed in two different areas, one is drought prone in Tiptur taluka of Tumkur district and the other is fluoride affected in Mundargi of Gadag district. Both the approaches have shown encouraging results. The linking of farm pond in a scientific way, and planning and implementation in participatory mode at Tiptur taluk of Tumkur dist. has proved to be a drought proofing mechanism. The approach has been adopted by different agencies in the watershed programme in Karnataka, and undivided Andhra Pradesh states. The second approach is for the fluoride affected area where the content of fluoride was 2.33 mg/liter in the bore well water and 5.26mg/ltr in the open well water before the start of the project in 2005. Trend in dilution of fluoride in the groundwater is observed at the later stages of the project. In the bore wells fluoride concentration came down from 4.39 to 2.86 ppm. and in the open wells from 5.44 to 2.71 ppm. Fluoride concentration in 17 other water sources too has come down to the permissible limit. The encouraging results attracted the donors and government officials, and as a result BIRD-K has extended the programme to more than 150 villages benefitting over 7200 families. In both the cases natural resources are improved with a rise in ground water table and water availability for agriculture, thereby enhancing income of the participants. The increased skills of the participants have diversified their income sources.

Integrated Water Resource Management ? Experiences from Karnataka

SKU: C-95957
It is a well known fact that river basins in the hard rock terrain are going negative in their natural water balance. This is mainly the reason for scarcity of water in Karnataka. The scarcity is increasing with each passing year in spite of normal rainfall. Reason for such a situation is attributed to decrease in natural vegetation cover, drastic change in land use leading to encroachment of natural streams and water bodies, and also their siltation. Added to this, there has been overexploitation of ground water. This changing scenario in geohydrology of the region has been noticed since last 4-5 decades. Attempts are being made continuously to alleviate the scarcity of water through several programs for watershed management, artificial recharge of ground water and legislative measures to regulate exploitation of ground water. In spite of all these efforts it has not been possible to redeem the natural water balance. Hence there is an urgent need to plan ecofriendly and effective rejuvenation of debilitated natural water sources through integrated water Resource management. The technique, developed on the basis of geological and geomorphological factors using remote sensing and geographic information system tools, has been to revive/ accelerate the natural processes of water conservation and its sustainability. The outcome is restoration of depleted ground water and extinct or dried up river systems, environment and ecosystems and hence, social economy and well being of the people.Experiences of such projects recently undertaken in the watersheds of three river basins of Karnataka viz., Kumudavati, Vedavati and Palar are presented in this paper. The paper also highlights community participation jointly with the government in such projects.

Integrated Watershed Management and People?s Participation: A Case Study of Ichalahalla Watershed

SKU: C-95944
Integrated watershed management project was carried out in Gadag district of Karnataka State under the guidance of Geological Society of India, Bengaluru. The project was facilitated by KVK, Hulkoti which mobilized the farming community of 6 villages through organization of awareness camps, seminars and water literacy camps in the villages. Series of training programmes on soil and water conservation, rain water harvesting and production technology in major crops were organized. After mobilizing the community, various soil and water conservation treatments were carried out in all the 6 watershed villages covering 5000 ha area. The intervention has made major impact on increased ground water availability resulting in sufficient water for irrigation. The area under commercial crops has been increased with pulses, oilseeds, horticulture and other commercial crops replacing the less productive cereal crops and the cropping intensity has also increased. The productivity of major crops and net returns per unit area in the watershed area has also increased, thus improving socio-economic condition of farmers.

Linking of West and East Flowing Rivers of Karnataka: Management of Surface Water and Groundwater in Drought Prone Areas

SKU: C-95953
Out of the State's total drainage area of 1,88,830 sq km, the westerly drainage is 24530 sq km (12.99%). More than 58% of (3408 TMC) the total surface water resources of Karnataka flow towards west flowing river basins which occupy less than 20% of the total area of the State. Out of this total 2000 TMC of West flowing waters, 40% (800 TMC) of rain water designated as Submarine Ground Water Discharge (SGWD) flows along with fertile silt into the Arabian sea through porous fractured and weathered hard rocks and sediments leaving unutilised flow of 1200 TMC of water.The modalities of the diversion of the rivers earlier mooted by K.L. Rao who envisaged constructing a Ganga-Cauvery link Canal; Captain Dustur's suggestion of construction of a garland canal for Western Ghats Watershed, G.S. Paramashivaiah's report on diversion of "sea flowing rivers" to meet the drought prone seven districts of Karnataka; BWSSB Expert Committee Report on diversion of excess water of Sharavathi to Bangalore; and Madhu Seethappa's Quest to Abate Thirsts, a proposal of diversion scheme of Sharavathi-Aganashini-Bedathi; and current proposals of Yettinahole and Mahadayi river diversions are discussed in this paper. There are a large number of streams and rivers that initially flow eastwards and changes their course to west due to the uplift of Mysore Plateau and headward erosion. Mahadayi, Kali, Bedathi, Aganashini, Sharavathi, Varahi, Seeta and Netravathi river basins are the main catchment areas apart from the small river basins, which contribute to 2000 TMC of total quantity of surface and groundwater along with fertile silt and organic matter.With this in background Geological Society of India on 28.05.2015 held a Seminar on Integrated and Sustainable Water Management, to prioritize sustainable conjunctive use of water in command areas, charging of groundwater in lift irrigated areas for filling up water in dry tanks for utilization of the same for developing dry land areas with particular focus on recharging aquifers in dry land areas where there is acute shortage of water for drinking in drought affected areas.The objective of this paper is to identify micro basins and select a few west flowing streams and rivers from their upland catchment areas and link them to the eastern drainage for providing drinking water, recharge groundwater through filling of existing dry tanks and rejuvenate dead rivers in drought affected areas in Eastern Karnataka without affecting the biodiversity and environment of Western Ghats in any substantial fashion.

Natural Disaster Monitoring System ? Karnataka Model

SKU: C-95964
International Panel on Climate Change Working Group II has suggested that the extreme weather events are likely to increase in both frequency and severity, particularly on regional and local scales (IPCC 2007). Consequently, devastating weather phenomena like successive droughts, torrential rainfall associated with lightning strikes, hailstorms, strong surface winds, and intense vertical wind shear are to increase and cause loss of life and property. It has been recommended to plan and implement monitoring system and sector-oriented early warning systems for the communities at risk.Karnataka State Natural Disaster Monitoring Centre (KSNDMC) has taken up pioneering and path breaking initiatives towards monitoring Natural Disasters. The Disaster monitoring mechanism, with a proactive approach, adopted by KSNDMC is a unique model in the country which has enabled the Executives earmarking areas affected by Disasters and notifying them in time. This has greatly supported the activation of response system in planning and implementing mitigation measures.KSNDMC has installed a network of weather monitoring stations which comprises Solar Powered GPRS enabled Telemetric Weather Stations at 747 Hoblis and Telemetric Rain Gauge Stations at all the 5625 Grampanchayaths. The data on Temperature, Relative Humidity, Wind Speed, Wind Direction, Rainfall Intensity and amount of Rainfall is being collected at every 15 minutes. The near-real time data collected through the network is being analysed, maps and reports generated at real time. The meso-scale weather forecast, at same spatial resolution as that of weather monitoring stations network, has also been developed.The Forecasts Alerts, Early warnings, Reports and Advises are being disseminated through email, SMS to the mobile phones of State level to Grampanchayath level officers of all line departments of GoK. To disseminate weather related information, forecast and related advises directly to the general public a 24x7 interactive Help Desk "VARUNA MITRA" is operational throughout the year.The near-real time data collection, report generation and dissemination have been helping the State Government in planning and executing disaster management and mitigation plans at micro-level.

SkyTEM ? A Highly Efficient Helicopter-Borne TEM System

SKU: C-95955
A modern helicopter-borne transient electromagnetic ("HTEM") system like SkyTEM can be used for many different applications such as aquifer mapping, mineral exploration, and geotechnical engineering. This broad range of applications necessitates, however, that the technology is versatile and fulfils essential criteria like good near-surface resolution, high signalto-noise ratio, and cost-effective operations. This paper demonstrates how SkyTEM systems are designed to accommodate these technical requirements. Furthermore, examples of utilization of SkyTEM systems for various applications will be shown.

Soil Conservation, Crop Water Planning and its Use Efficiency in Rainfed Agriculture

SKU: C-95946
Soil and water are the major natural resources endangered with erosion, which need to be conserved for existence of life. Soil and rainfall characteristics in the state is highly diversified, necessitating efficient conservation. In-situ conservation practices can help in low rainfall areas to protect these resources. Ex-situ conservation practices are essential in sustaining agriculture in rainfed ecosystem and safe disposal of excess water is the concern in high rainfall coastal areas. Contour farming, deep tillage once in 2-3 years under crop rotation using tractor drawn implements like Disc Plough, Mould Board Plough and Chisel Plough, inter-terrace management through bunding and vegetative barriers based on the rainfall intensity, slope and texture of the soil, broad bed furrows in black soil, moisture conservation furrows/dead furrows, mulching with crop residue/ weeds, community based water harvesting structures, scooping can help for conservation of soil and water resources. Planning crops depending on the length of growing period, efficient use of water through the adoption of micro-irrigation, conveying through pipes, conjunctive use with rain and poor quality water, irrigation at critical stages, diversified cropping based on land use capability, water availability period and contingent practices under weather aberrations can help for improving the productivity and water use efficiency.

Sustainable Water Management in Lakshadweep Islands: An Integrated Approach

SKU: C-95962
Fresh water management in small islands is a delicate issue as the available resources are limited. The fresh water lenses in these islands are in equilibrium with the seawater and are affected by diurnal and seasonal tidal effects. Shape of the islands influence stability of the freshwater lens and the water quality variations in response to tides are significant. Lakshadweep islands are tiny coral islands with a fragile hydrogeological environment. Groundwater potential of these tiny islands cannot be assessed based on water table fluctuation. Water budgeting seems to be the most accurate and the recharge were assessed accordingly, separately for brackish and freshwater lens areas. An integrated water management approach involving rainwater harvesting, desalination of seawater and sustainable development of freshwater lenses are explored and the technical viabilities of such approaches are ascertained.

The Indigenous Knowledge Systems of Water Management in India

SKU: C-95943
The traditional knowledge systems of water management have served the communities to withstand the scourge of drought, including drinking water crisis. Johads are the most popular water harvesting structures, historically in use in Rajasthan, but rendered defunct through non maintenance and neglect. Tarun Bharat Sangh (TBS), an NGO in Rajasthan, has mobilized the community to undertake revival of this traditional knowledge system through restoration of the defunct water harvesting structures and construction of the new ones in Alwar district, Rajasthan. This pioneering endeavor yielded spectacular cascading effects on environment, ecology and socioeconomy apart from revival of the dead river Arvari. TBS has established that our traditional ecofriendly knowledge system of water management is still relevant in the country.

Water Management in India: Issues and Strategies

SKU: C-95965
Water is crucial for a country's development and economic growth. Though India is endowed with bounty of rainfall, unplanned development and management of water is leading to water scarcity, economic and environmental strain which may increase manifold in the coming decades. Studies indicate that integrated management of all water resources can avert the impending water crisis. The paper briefly narrates and analyses the water management issues, and future strategies.

Water Management in Urban Scenario with Special Reference to Karnataka

SKU: C-95949
Water is one of the basic necessities for human sustenance.The per capita availability of fresh water is decreasing day by day due to increase in population , industrialization and consequent pollution.Water being a renewable resource, there is ample scope to use technologies to treat polluted water, manage it effectively using sound management principles. This paper examines various issues viz.,Legal,Technical, Financial, Institutional, Ethical and Community participation with special reference to Karnataka state and possible solutions to manage this precious resource effectively.