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Aquifer Delineation and Suggestive Management ? A Case Study from North Twenty Four Parganas District, West Bengal

SKU: C-165855
Groundwater is an important source of fresh potable water. Hence understanding of aquifer disposition and its potentiality is essential for scientific ground water development and management of an area. North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal lies in the interfluves of the Ganga- Ichhamati Rivers in the lower part of the Ganges Delta. The district is endowed with abundant surface water and ground water resources. But the deltaic environment of deposition in the proximity of coastal zone makes the hydrogeology rather complicated, the problems associated being salinity, arsenic contamination, fine sand as aquifer materials, soil salinity and thick clay layer. With the objective of mapping the freshwater aquifers a detailed study has been carried out in parts of North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal covering 13 blocks spanning an area of nearly 2282 sq. km. under National Aquifer Mapping & Management Programme (NAQUIM) of Central Ground Water Board. Based on the study an attempt has been made to highlight the detailed 2-D and 3-D aquifer dispositions, their lateral and vertical correlation, quantity and quality assessment. About 67 lithological logs of existing wells are carefully examined and borehole log data are compiled in Sedlog, Mapinfo and Rock works softwares to prepare the 2 D and 3 D maps of aquifer disposition. Three distinct aquifer groups have been identified. The block wise aquifer disposition in respect of quantity and quality will highlight the future ground water development and management possibilities in this area.

Arsenic Contaminated Aquifers in the Middle Ganga Plain and Alternate Aquifer-Based Water Supply

SKU: C-165849
As contamination of ground water is being reported from a large areas of the Middle Ganga Plain, covering the states of Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh. The contamination has impacted the aquifers within the top 50-60 m in general, while the deeper aquifers, separated by low-permeable aquitards, in a multi-tiered aquifer system, are found to be free from contamination. The deeper low-Arsenic aquifers are marked with good transmissivity and can be used for community water supply through properly designed and constructed deep tube wells. The discharge and duration of pumping from such wells must be regulated to prevent any possible vertical leakage of contaminated water through the aquitards, separating the contaminated shallow aquifers and low-Arsenic deeper aquifers.

Arsenic Modulates Health Hazards Through Dietary Intakes: A Village Level Study from West Bengal, India

SKU: C-165857
Arsenic in groundwater may cause a severe deleterious impact on human health through regular consumption. But the long term use of this contaminated water during irrigation resulted in an elevated soil arsenic concentration. So the concern is raised by the drinking water as well as the cultivated rice grain. Rice has been demonstrated to be a potential candidate in the exposure pathway of arsenic in humans. This study mainly focuses on the elevated arsenic concentration in biomarkers viz. urine, hair, nail and prominent cytogenic damages through micronucleus formation in urine epithelial cell of the exposed population. On a subjective note, this population is mostly associated with the staple consumption of cooked rice and contaminated drinking water for a long period of time. The analysis therefore involves both quantitative and qualitative assays of biological samples with observations providing deeper insights into arsenic accumulation and distribution in affected individuals from the exposed population according to the toxicity level. This study importantly raises a considerable concern over the looming threat of arsenic to human health.

Assessing the Environmental Flows for the Transboundary River Ichamati

SKU: C-165853
River Ichamati, the major provider of freshwater to the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem flowing along the India- Bangladesh border now stands disconnected from its freshwater source. This study estimates the run-off volume of the river basin through a SWAT model to consider it?s rejuvenation. A hypothetical channel-form for the disconnected part of Ichamati has been constructed using existing and regenerated cross-sections. The flow availability in the river channel under both present and restored conditions has been estimated using HEC-RAS model. The study indicates the average freshwater flow in the river at Kalanchi to be less than 1 cumec during the lean period and up to 100 cumec in monsoon. Hydrological Tennant method, Flow Duration Curve (FDC) and the holistic Building Block method (BBM) have been used to assess the environmental flows for the non-tidal part of the river. Comparable flow values of around 188 cumec during monsoon and little over 30 cumec in the lean months have been assessed after the proposed restoration using all methods. The authors advocate trans-boundary collaboration between India and Bangladesh for the revival of the decayed channel to ensure environmental flows and sustenance of the Sundarbans, a World Heritage and Ramsar site shared by the two neighbouring countries.

Ceramic Membrane Based Plant for Purification of Ground Water for Decontamination of Arsenic and Iron

SKU: C-165859
Membrane based separation has gained importance in water purification due to certain advantages like better contamination separation efficiencies, low chemical requirement, lower footprint requirements and ease of maintenance. Ceramic membranes in particular has additional advantages like long life of operations, tolerance to harsh chemical conditions and much higher operational life compared to polymeric membranes. The advantages of ceramic membranes have been exploited in the separation of Iron and Arsenic. Ceramic membranes were developed at CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute and same has been applied in Arsenic and Iron Separation. Till date 250 number of plants of varying capacities ranging from 500 litre per hour to 8000 Litre per hour have been installed in eastern states of India.

Challenges in Management of Groundwater Resources of Tripura

SKU: C-165844
Tripura is occupied by the semi-consolidated sedimentary formations ranging in age from Upper Tertiary to Quaternary. It is having N-S trending alternate parallel hill ranges and valleys. Fine to medium grained, friable Tipam sandstones form the principal aquifer. Ground water exploration has shown that valleys are having very good potential aquifers. Now, ground water is extracted for drinking and irrigation purposes through thousands of ion structures like dug wells, shallow tube wells, deep tube wells and artesian wells. Tripura rely heavily on its ground water resources from deeper aquifers for drinking water supply schemes. Mean depth to water level recorded from the unconfined aquifer in the state varies from 1.03 to 7.93 m below ground level during the pre-monsoon season. Dynamic groundwater resources of Tripura estimated for the year 2016-17 by using GEC-2015 methodology show that total annual ground water recharge is 1.34 BCM, gross groundwater extraction is 0.10 BCM and stage of ground water extraction is only about 7.88% . Ground water management and extraction plans based on these figures do not consider its extraction by thousands of deep tube wells and mini deep tube wells from deeper aquifers. This paper proposes a few strategies for better and scientific management of groundwater resources in Tripura.

Changing Courses of Eastern Himalayan Rivers: Flood Hazard and Irrigation Aspects and Linking of Brahmaputra ? Ganga Rivers

SKU: C-165854
In the Quaternary period the changing landform features in the Himalayan mountainous region and piedmont zone is the reflection of interdependent responses of neotectonic effects, climate change and progressive shifts of the major rivers. The fluvial regimes and the piedmont facies also fit in a dynamic equilibrium of coalescing and migrating ?fan- in- fan? morphology with unconsolidated materials in response to oscillation of climate from cold to warm during different glacial and interglacial stages of Quaternary period as well as in recent time. Thus, the shifting of the river courses and subsequent changes in the morphological features have taken place in time and space which caused force shifting of the human settlements in recent past also.In the present-day scenario, to reduce the adverse effects of flood/ waterlogging caused by the change in river courses, the major eastern Himalayan rivers viz. Gandak, Kosi, Tista etc. are with dam and barrages. However, the canals (both main and distributaries) are passing through the alluvial fan zone where both lateral and vertical seepages are very common as observed in satellite images and ?in-situ? survey. For the reason, the canals are not fulfilling the objectives of the irrigation facilities in the command areas rather playing facilitator role towards increasing waterlogged areas along the canals.On the issue, a detailed discussion is made in this paper about the hydro-geological/ geomorphological conditions of the terrain units and anthropogenic factors for upgradation of irrigation facilities and other societal aspects through linking of the Brahmaputra ? Ganga Rivers from Bangladesh to Farakka Barrage for the benefits of the two countries in the context of the regional co-operation on water resources of five south-east Asian countries (viz. India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and China).

Control of Aquifer Geometry on Groundwater Arsenic in the Gangetic Delta, India

SKU: C-165851
The highly productive delta aquifers serve as the main source of drinking and irrigation water in the Gangetic delta plains of India. However, the groundwater from these aquifers has been detected to have toxic levels of dissolved arsenic, resulting in widespread arsenic poisoning of the population living in these delta plains. The distribution of arsenic concentrations in groundwater is known to be controlled by several factors like, surface geology, aquifer architecture, sediment geochemistry, groundwater chemistry and flow dynamics, biogeochemical environment within the aquifers, groundwater ion patterns and other anthropogenic activities. A detailed study has been conducted on the control of the aquifer geometry on the distribution of groundwater arsenic in these aquifers. The study reveals that the disposition of the low permeability layers within the aquifer system imposes a strong control on the distribution of groundwater arsenic within these aquifers. The multi-layered aquifer system in the southern parts of the delta having intricate interlayering of low permeability clay layers prove to be architecturally more resistant to arsenic invasion from shallower levels than the thick aquifer sands without substantial clay layers ins the northern part of the delta where deep irrigational pumping might cause rapid inflow of shallow arsenic rich water to the deeper aquifers.

Estimating Water Resource in Wokha, Nagaland Using Geo-Informatics

SKU: C-165858
Nagaland, a north eastern state of India has been suffering from water crisis since decades. Water scarcity has become chronic and perennial in many districts like Wokha. We have estimated the surface water resource and ground water potential zones in Wokha with the integrated use of Landsat OLI, LISS IV and Sentinel-1A SAR data. Thematic maps of LULC, slope, drainage density and fractional impervious surface are prepared. Published thematic maps of lithology, major faults and soil type are used.Our analysis shows that considering existing surface water resource and the population density of Wokha, the water crisis is more of economic nature than physical. Forested wetland and hydrologic wetlands are identified as potential new resource. Hydrologic wetlands are perennial water resources. These wetlands can act as an alternative water source. Further, our study shows that around 58% of the district have good ground water potential and they are well distributed throughout the terrain.

Geomicrobiology of Arsenic (As) Contaminated Groundwater of West Bengal Reveals Microbial Role in Sediment Bound Arsenic Mobilization

SKU: C-165856
Geogenic arsenic (As) in groundwater of the Bengal basin has led to ?the worst mass poisoning in human history? with >170 million people exposed to toxic levels of As. Understanding the mechanism(s) underlying As release into groundwater from host minerals is a critical issue for developing any sustainable drinking water supply strategy. Release of As results from complex interplay between hydro-geo-microbiological processes. The present study aims at analyze microbial community structure, dynamics, and metabolic role using groundwater sampled from two As hotspots of West Bengal (Barasat and Swarupnagar). Metagenomic DNA based 16S rRNA gene (V4 region targeted) sequencing showed dominance of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. Incubation of groundwater microbiome with aquifer sediment showed a marked shift in community composition with an abundance of Rhizobium, Paenibacillus, Acinetobacter, and Staphylococcus reportedly known for anaerobic hydrocarbon utilization, iron reduction, As biotransformation, and fermentation abilities. Change in physicochemical properties indicated microbe-mediated geochemical transformations. Thus, the study highlighted the role of groundwater microbial community members in facilitating the mobilization of sediment-bound As.

Glimpses of Surface Water Scenario in Some Eastern and North Eastern States in India

SKU: C-165846
The Ganga and the Brahmaputra river system constitute the major river network draining a vast alluvial terrain in eastern and north-eastern sector of India. The Ganga?Brahmaputra?Meghna river system is carrying 1375 BCM water annually. However, distribution of water in these rivers are uneven, bulk of which are available only during four monsoon months of a year. In the remaining eight months the water flow is reduced to its one?sixth amount. A number of Major and Medium Command Area Projects have been implemented. But there are possibilities to harness many more for optimum utilization of available water resources in this part of the country. A number of critical issues like Command Area Management, Resettlement and Rehabilitation of displaced Communities, Flood Management, Drought Management specially in Chotonagpur Plateau areas, Desilting of existing canals, Quality deterioration of river waters await solution.In order to have optimal and rational utilization of available water resources in this part of the country, a number of recommendations have been made.

Ground Water Resources and Development Prospect in the State of Arunachal Pradesh, India

SKU: C-165842
The state of Arunachal Pradesh covering an area of 83,743 sq. km receives an average rainfall of 3000 mm. It is blessed with favorable natural geo-climatic conditions and resources with rich biodiversity, lush green forest. The state has immense potential to harness hydropower as a major chunk of Brahmaputra basin lies within its territory. In spite of abundant surface water resource in the state, there is acute shortage of water during summer as major part of the rainfall is lost as surface run-off. The Annual extractable Groundwater recharge is 2.667 BCM which should be judiciously utilized in different fields for all round socio-economic upliftment. Hence, a scientific and sustainable approach is required to manage the water resource in the coming years for the overall development of the State and its people.

Ground Water Resources of Eastern and North Eastern States of India

SKU: C-165838
The states in the Eastern and North Eastern region together having an area of 20.7% of India sustain 26.11% of the population of the country. The annual rain fall of the region is well above the average for India.The Region has some of the most prolific alluvial aquifers. Mostly, water level remains at shallow depths throughout the year barring the hilly areas. Water quality in most parts is suitable for all uses, except certain areas where some constituents exceed the permissible limit for drinking water, and some patches with brackish to saline water. Ground water development has not been at the desired level in the region in sharp contrast to other parts of the country and there is sufficient scope for future development. In the region, highest stage of ground water development is 45% in Bihar and West Bengal followed by 30% in Odisha, 23% in Jharkhand and 16% in Assam. The stage of development in other states is negligible. Judicious and optimal use of the huge reserve of available groundwater resource can bring about sizable improvements in the economy of the region, which is basically agrarian.

Ground Water Resources of Jharkhand State and its Development Perspective

SKU: C-165847
Jharkhand State covering an area of 79714 sq. kms have three major hydrogeological formations consisting of Fissured formation, Semi-Consolidated formation and Porous formation. About 90 percent of area is covered by hard rock (fissured) formation. Chotanagpur Granite gneissic complex consisting of Granite, Granite gneisses, Schists, Phyllites are the major rock formations while Vindhyans, Rajmahal basalts, Laterites, Tertiaries and Alluvium are the minor formations. Exploratory drilling in fissured formation and Rajmahal basalt has revealed that majority of the fractures occur within 130 m bgl. Well discharge in these formations varies, - 10-51 m3/hrs in Rajmahal basalt, 1.5-80 m3/hr in Granite gneisses and 3.6-5 m3/hr in Gondwana formations. As per Ground Water Resources Assessment 2017, the total annual ground water (GW) recharge has been assessed as 6.21 bcm and annual extractable GW Resources is 5.69 bcm. The annual GW extraction is 1.58 bcm and the Stage of GW extraction is 28%. Out of 260 blocks in Jharkhand State, 3 blocks have been categorised as Over-Exploited, 2 as Critical, 10 as Semi-Critical and 245 as Safe. There are no saline blocks in the State. The major ground water issues in Jharkhand State are the areas of intensive Coal, Copper and Uranium mining through which huge volume of ground water is being wasted. Low yield potential in hard rock terrain is another ground water issue. Fluoride contamination has also been observed in 60 blocks in 12 districts.

Ground Water Resources of North-Eastern States with Special Reference to Sikkim

SKU: C-165840
Although India?s Northeast is rich in natural resources, but in terms of development the region lags behind the rest of the country. The Region is characterized by great environmental and natural resource diversity. It consists of eight states ? Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, and Tripura - occupying 262,179 sq. km. It is home to more than 200 out of 450 of India?s tribes. Due to the prevailing geomorphological and agro-climatic conditions in the region, groundwater has a key role in meeting the water needs even in the midst of abundance of rainfall and surface water. The catchment area is hilly with high slope with the result that a major part of the rainfall is lost as surface run off. Apart from this, numerous streams, small rivers, nullas and springs also act as carriers of ground water. Hence, for augmenting the ground water resources of the region to promote all round development, the prospects of development of springs, roof top rainwater harvesting, and construction of shallow tube wells across the region have been discussed in this paper in the light of changing social and economic fabric of the region, and the outlook on development challenges.

Ground Water Scenario of Meghalaya State: Prospective Areas for Development

SKU: C-165843
Meghalaya state is basically a hilly terrain with intermontane valleys and tablelands located in Northeastern part of India and lying between latitudes 25?05? and 26?10?N, and longitudes 89?47? and 92?47?E. Major portion of the state is underlain by consolidated formations comprising crystalline, impervious igneous and metamorphic rocks. Ground water in the area is primarily controlled by lithology, structure and physiography. Joints, fractures, fissures of the hard rocks are repository of ground water at depths ranging from 50m to 240m. Dynamic ground water resource of the state as estimated by CGWB (2017) is 1.82 billion cubic meter (BCM) and the annual ground water available is 1.64 billion cubic meter (BCM). The annual ground water extraction is 0.04 billion cubic meter (BCM) and the stage of development is 2.28% against the national average of 63%. All the 11 districts of the state have been categorised as ?safe?. Tribal population is accustomed to use surface water as traditional and conventional source of water supply for domestic purpose. Moreover, they prefer to fetch water from the springs located 2 to 5 km away instead of getting bore well water at door step. Hence participation of tribal community alongwith stakeholders in ground water programmes will create greater awareness. Ground water irrigation is almost absent. The paper deals with the ground water scenario of the state with special reference to prospective areas for sustainable ground water development and management.

Groundwater Potential of Bihar: An Insight into its Sustainable Development and Management

SKU: C-165848
The state of Bihar, an agrarian state, is bestowed with a vast, fertile alluvial tract and abundant water resources which hold key to its economic development. This annually replenishable natural resource is beset with several management problems. The surface water irrigation projects are unable to provide adequate supply of water to the farmers and have also caused water logging and salinity problems. Further, variations in precipitation in time and space have often led to drought-flood syndrome creating water crisis. Consequently, ubiquitous occurrence, immunity from drought for two or three consecutive water-years and the relative ease of decentralized access have all led to groundwater being the backbone of agriculture and drinking water in the state. Hydrogeological and geophysical surveys have enabled delineation of ground water occurrences, and their development potentials. Hydro-chemical studies have revealed sporadic arsenic contamination in shallow aquifers along the banks of the River Ganga and fluoride contamination in the hard rock areas in parts of South Bihar. This paper presents elaborately an account of shallow as well as deeper aquifers, their potential in the state along with the possibility of sustainable development and management of the aquifers.

Groundwater Quality in North-Eastern States

SKU: C-165845
In India, majority of the population depend on groundwater to meet their daily requirement. In North Eastern States, though surface water is supplied to the people in hilly areas but in plains groundwater is extensively used for public supply. In the State of Assam where major sources of public water supply are groundwater, people in several districts are facing problem due to contamination of groundwater with excess iron, arsenic and fluoride. Tripura State is also mostly groundwater dependent and in this State 53.11% habitations are facing problem due to presence of iron beyond permissible limit. In addition, presence of arsenic beyond 10 ppb (acceptable limit) could be found in Tripura. In the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland where groundwater is supplied, presence of iron beyond permissible limit has been reported. However, in surface water supply systems of North-eastern States arsenic, fluoride and iron contamination have not been reported.

Groundwater Resources Potential and its Management Strategies in West Bengal

SKU: C-165850
About two third of West Bengal is covered by alluvial deposits of Sub-Recent to Recent time while the remainder by a wide variety of hard rocks where water scarcity is prevalent. Hydrogeologically fissured and fractured hard rocks predominate in the Peninsular and extra peninsular areas while Quaternary arenaceous formations underlie the plains. Groundwater development in hard rocks is possible through construction of dug well, dug-cum-bore wells as also bore wells. Springs form major source of water in the hilly and mountainous tract and losing sustainability due to climatic change. In spite of prolific resource potential of the vast alluvial aquifer, great deal of anomalies in ground water potential and qualities are noticed. Shallow alluvial aquifers are under extensive exploitation but high incidence of Arsenic in ground water (above permissible limit of 0.01 mg/l) within 100 metre below ground level (mbgl) has been reported from 104 blocks of 10 districts in West Bengal. Fluoride contamination is also prevalent in parts of hard rock areas as also alluvial Barind tract. In the Coastal areas, fresh water bearing aquifers are occurring at places within 120m underlain by saline aquifers while in major parts it is sandwiched by saline aquifers and delineated within 140-360 mbgl. Several issues related to groundwater and management are discussed in the paper.

Hydrogeology of Assam and its Development Prospects

SKU: C-165841
Assam is endowed with abundant water resources. The large perennial rivers and other water bodies with the rich aquifers speak about the vastness of its water resource. The ground water is available at low to moderate depth almost in the entire state. Although there is seasonal and regional variations in the availability of water resources, the annual availability of water resource remains almost the same. Agriculture has the largest share of water consumption amongst the various uses followed by domestic and industrial uses. With the shifting of focus from large farmers in Green Revolution areas in northwest India to small and marginal farmers in east India for sustaining the production of rice, states like Assam, where potentials for exploiting the existing technology are yet largely untapped, have received greater attention from the government in recent years. This paper presents the hydrogeological setup, availability of dynamic ground water resource and future scope of its development.

Planning and Management of Water Resources in North East India

SKU: C-165860
The topographical and geographical locations of North-Eastern region of India, consisting of eight states is unique with the hydro- meteorological situations making it one of the highest rainfall zones of the world. The region is characterized by low population density, difficult topography, different habitation pattern and social culture, rich forestry and biodiversity with changing climatic conditions . Rainfall of the region being high, varies with space and time in the scale 1000-11000mm. The major river basins of the region are Brahmaputra basin, Barak basin, Gumti basin and Imphal basin. Thus, the variability in rainfall causes some parts of the region water deficient affecting the people?s lives in general and agriculture in particular. Whereas the excess rainfall in some other regions, especially in the Brahmaputra valley causes the floods ,drainage congestion, sedimentation and soil erosion problems. The region accounts for about 35% of total water resources of the country though its geographical area (26.23 Mha) is only 8% of the country. Ultimate Irrigation Potential (UIP) of the region is 43.16 Mha. Irrigation Potential Created (IPC) through major, medium and minor irrigation schemes of NE are less than one fifth of UIP. Percentage of net irrigated area (NIA) over net sown area of the region is 18.89 as compared to the national average of 44.88 %. Hydropower potential of this region is 63257 MW, of which only 1911 MW has been harnessed so far (3.02%). Per capita availability of water in the region is highest in the country. However, its harnessing is very limited, which is even less than 5% of the existing potential. In spite of such huge water resources potential of the region, harnessing and development of the water resources potential for irrigation and hydropower is very nominal. Thus, to assist the optimal and sustainable use of water resources in the North Eastern Region, there is a need to plan effectively by applying the management tools, and through institutional collaborations, and accordingly initiate actions for control, conservation and utilization of water throughout the region. This paper is a review on the status of development of water resources in NER. Some views and suggestions are also presented in terms of proper planning and management of water resources in the region.

Revisiting East Kolkata Wetlands ? Management Options with Holistic Approach

SKU: C-165852
East Kolkata Wetlands (EKW) are series of shallow depth sewage-fed fisheries thriving in eastern part of Kolkata City. These water bodies, erstwhile part of Sundarbans, represent the spill basin of once mighty river ?Bidyadhari?. These were originally saline in nature, which gave rise to its name as ?Salt Lake?. Traditionally ?Capture Fishing? was practiced here. Sudden changes in course of the Ganges towards east due to neo-tectonic movement transformed the spill basin into stagnant water bodies. Some portion of this area was leased out in 1868 for solid waste dumping, renamed as ?Dhapa?. Subsequently, local fishermen tried to utilise city sewage flowing towards eastern side through canals as source of water and nutrient which became successful in 1929-30. Altogether 7300 hectares of sewage-fed fisheries existed here in 1945. Due to population explosion and urbanisation, indiscriminate reclamation of these wetlands was going on without considering the considerable ecosystem services being provided by them. Subsequently, Calcutta High Court imposed injunction on further reclamation of these wetlands in 1992, which by that time became famous as EKW, even though these wetlands are still under threat. An objective interdisciplinary assessment of various issues of concerns in EKW and suggesting available management option towards its sustainability has been attempted here.

Scope for Conjunctive Use and Interlinking of Rivers in Assam

SKU: C-165839
Not with standing known contamination of groundwater by inorganic contaminants like arsenic and fluoride, a major proportion of rural communities in Assam relies on groundwater as a source of drinking water. First revealed during 2004, a comprehensive picture of groundwater contamination from arsenic in the Brahmaputra Valley emerged during a collaborative study by IITG-UNICEF and PHED, Assam. The study revealed that in 29% of a total 56,180 public sources analyzed arsenic content is above the threshold value of 10 ppb (WHO/BIS) exposing a huge unguarded population to the risk of arsenic contamination and resultant health hazard. It also brought to light a zone along the southern bank of the Brahmaputra River where arsenic levels were much above the recommended values. Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) of Assam initiated one of the grandiose piped water supply schemes for the state , where surface water from two major tributaries of Brahmaputra, the Dhansiri and the Doiang Rivers, are used for supply of arsenic free safe water to a designed population of 1, 90,000. While adequate surface water availability in the vicinity of such high arsenic contaminated aquifers have provided a viable alternative, this is infeasible in areas with discreet contaminated groundwater with scarce surface water sources nearby. Solutions like integration of rainwater harvesting structures, water recharging, delineation and safeguarding safe aquifers, reuse and recycling, water saving technologies, smart systems and conjunctive use then form part of a composite option necessitated for addressing the gaps and inadequacies in ensuring safe drinking water in the region.

The Water Management in West Bengal: Exploring the Prospects for Sustainability

SKU: C-165837
Water as a natural resource is so vital for the survival of the living beings including mankind that it is referred as ?elixir of life? in the ancient holy books. Although water is a major planetary component so far as its abundance is considered, but the percentage of total water resource available for human use is very limited. The increasing demand of water, for meeting the need of exponentially growing human population, is interfering the natural cycle in such a way that there is already serious constraint on the potential of replenishment of the usable water resource especially the ground water reserves. Several parts of the world are already facing serious crisis of water. West Bengal, where there was no real threat of water scarcity because of significant rain fall, is also likely to face serious shortage of water in no distant period. Other than increasing population and urbanization, the agricultural practice followed after the ?green revolution? through numerous minor-irrigation projects has put a serious threat on the ground water availability. Unless a sustainable water policy is formulated, the State may become a water scarce in a foreseeable future. West Bengal, being a part of the largest delta of the World, is endowed with extensive wetlands which render many ecological services to the Society and Ecosystem. Unfortunately these wetlands are fast disappearing under mounting pressures of urbanization and other uses. The conservation of wetland demands top priority.

Water Security in Jharkhand

SKU: C-165861
Water is a ?Common Property Resource? that is fast reaching in the regime of tradable commodity. In changing circumstances, the term ?Water Security? assumes importance. The author is working with Water and Environment related issues for last one decade. In upcoming series, he provides a commentary on status of Socio- Technical issues related to Water Security in Jharkhand. Rapid urbanization and population growth have affected the net availability of water in the state since its creation in 2000. Tapping optimal volume of rainwater has been a longstanding challenge in undulating central Indian craton. Recent efforts by various agencies to produce more food under more hostile condition and Improving efficiency & productivity of water only lead to unsafe exploitation and existing concerns. The paper reviews select issues related to Ground Water availability, quality and sustainability in the state and recommend a rout map for achieving Sustainable Development Goal related to availability of safe water for all, in context for the state. A professionally Managed institution of Hydrogeology experts in the state with dedicated behavioral change initiatives is considered as key to save the state from a well-foreseen disaster.